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【威尼斯人手机版官网】第135期:人工智能的历史(History of Artificial Intelligence)

编辑: 研究生院 发布日期: 2018-11-10 浏览量:

  讲座题目人工智能的历史(History of Artificial Intelligence)

  报 告 人:DOUGLAS O'SHAUGHNESSY

                  (加拿大蒙特利尔国立科学研究院(INRS)的教授;IEEE Fellow,ASA Fellow

  时  间:2018年11月12日(周四)9:30

  地  点:中关村校区信息科学实验楼205

  主办单位:研究生院、信息与电子学院

【主讲人简介】

  Douglas O'Shaughnessy于1976年获得美国麻省理工学院(MIT)博士学位。现任加拿大蒙特利尔国立科学研究院(INRS)的教授,也是加拿大麦吉尔大学的兼职教授。他是《语音通信:人与机器》一书的作者。2003年,他与L.邓合著了《语音处理:一种动态和优化导向的方法》(Marcel Dekker)。他的研究兴趣包括语音处理的各个方面,最近主要集中在语音自动识别方面。O'Shaughnessy教授是美国声学学会会士。他在美国声学学会期刊担任了12年的副编辑,也是欧洲音讯、演讲和音乐处理杂志的创始主编。他现在是国际语音通信协会(ISCA)副主席和IEEE信号处理协会(SPS)语音和语言技术委员会主席。他还曾担任IEEE语音和音频处理交易的副编辑、SPS理事会理事,现在是IEEE技术活动委员会(TAB)期刊委员会成员。他在1996年、2001年和2009年的国际声学、语音和信号处理会议(ICASSP)和2003年国际通信会议(ICC)上就语音识别做了大会专题报告。

  

Douglas O'Shaughnessy (Fellow, IEEE) received the Ph.D. degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA, USA, in 1976.He has been a Professor at the Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS), Montreal, QC, Canada and an Adjunct Professor at McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada, since 1977. He is the author of the textbook Speech Communications: Human and Machine (Reading, MA, USA: Addison-Wesley, 1986; revised Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE Press, 2000). In 2003, with L. Deng, he coauthored the book Speech Processing: A Dynamic and Optimization-Oriented Approach (Marcel Dekker). His research interests include all aspects of speech processing, focusing recently on automatic speech recognition. Prof. O'Shaughnessy is a Fellow of the Acoustical Society of America. He served 12 years as an Associate Editor for the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, and is the founding Editor-in-Chief of the EURASIP Journal on Audio, Speech, and Music Processing. He is now the Vice-President of the International Speech Communication Association (ISCA) and Chair of the IEEE Signal Processing Society's (SPS's) Speech and Language Technical Committee. He has served also as an Associate Editor for the IEEE Transactions on Speech and Audio Processing, on the SPS Board of Governors, and now on the IEEE Technical Activities Board (TAB) Periodicals Committee. He has presented tutorials on speech recognition at the 1996, 2001, and 2009 International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP) and the 2003 International Conference on Communications (ICC).

【讲座摘要】

  人工智能(AI)涉及推理、知识、自然语言处理、人工感知和控制对象的能力。在20世纪50年代,最早的应用程序模拟玩游戏(如跳棋)和解决代数文字问题。20世纪60年代出现了心理治疗师(Eliza)的程序模拟。1980年之前,人工智能通过专家系统获得了商业上的成功。专家系统是模拟人类专家的知识和分析技能的程序,例如能够理解和说出合成语音的机器。到2000年,人工智能在物流、数据挖掘、医疗诊断等领域得到了广泛应用。更快的计算速度、算法改进以及对海量数据的访问,使得人工智能取得了重大进展。例如,1997年IBM的深蓝电脑国际象棋系统击败了当时的国际象棋世界冠军;2011年,在Jeopardy!智力竞赛节目上,IBM的沃森系统击败了两位Jeopardy!高手;2016年,AlphaGo击败了一位重要的围棋世界冠军。

  

Artificial intelligence (AI) involves reasoning, knowledge, learning, natural language processing, artificial perception, and the ability to control objects.  In the 1950s, the earliest applications simulated playing games (e.g., checkers) and solving word problems in algebra.  The 1960s saw simulations of a psychotherapist (Eliza). Before 1980, AI had commercial success via expert systems, programs that simulated the knowledge and analytical skills of human experts, e.g., machines that could understand and utter synthetic speech.  By 2000, AI had found great use in logistics, data mining, medical diagnosis and many other areas. Faster computers, improvements in algorithms, and access to huge amounts of data had enabled major AI advances.  As one example, IBM’s Deep Blue computer chess-playing system beat a reigning world chess champion in 1997. By 2011, in a Jeopardy! quiz show exhibition match, IBM's Watson system defeated two Jeopardy! masters. In 2016, AlphaGo bested a major Go champion.